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Easy Latin – Lesson 5: Personal Pronouns

Easy Latin – Lesson 5: Personal Pronouns

Learning Latin’s personal pronouns is the final step in gaining a great foot hold on the Latin language. After this lesson you will be able to enter the world of Latin translation and really begin the amazing experience of reading an ancient language.


Pronouns take the place of a noun, so “he” instead of John, “she” instead of the girl. Latin pronouns have gender, so sometimes it is best to translate a pronoun as “it” to make better sense in English.

Determinative Pronouns

Below is a partial selection of the 3rd person pronoun.

Case Masculine   Feminine  
3rd person, sing., nom. Is He Ea She
3rd person, sing., acc. Eum Him Eam Her
3rd person, pl., nom. Ei They Eae They
3rd person, pl., acc. Eos Them Eas Them

Here are some examples,

eam amo – I love her

is laudat – he praises

eos spectas – you are watching them

The determinative pronoun can refer to someone or something that has already been spoken about. It can act as an adjective, meaning this or that person. For example,

is puer amat eam – that boy loves her

When you are translating, it is not always obvious how the pronoun is being used, so you have to find the context and decide what you believe is the best option.

Interrogative Pronouns

This is simply a pronoun that asks a question such as, who? or, whom? The singular form is both masculine and feminine. If the pronoun is referring to something that isn’t human, it can be translated as, what, or, which.

Case Singular Plural   Meaning
  Masc. & Fem. Masc. Fem.  
Nominative Quis Qui Quae Who?
Accusative Quem Quos Quas Whom?

Here are some examples,

quis stat? – Who is standing?

quas laudant? – Whom do they praise?

quae pugnant? – Who are fighting?

Exercise 1 – Translating Latin Pronouns

  1. quis habet percuniam?
  2. is vir habet percuniam
  3. non habeo percuniam quod tuum puerum dat eam suo domino
  4. quas equum est?
  5. regina equam servo dat
  6. cur equam servo dat?
  7. equam servo dat propter eum laudat ea

Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

Demonstrative pronouns refer to something literally or figuratively. We are looking at the words, this, these, that, and, those. They can act as either pronouns standing in for a noun, or as an adjective, describing a noun. Lets look at some examples,

This dog is barking loudly. – this acts as an adjective, describing the dog.

I am thinking of this… – this acts as a pronoun.

Demonstrative Pronoun – ille, illa, illud (that, those)
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Nom. ille illi illa illae illud illa
Acc. illum illos illam illas illud illa
Gen. illius illorum illius illarum illius illorum
Dat. illi illis illi illis illi illis
Abl. illo illis illa illis illo illis
Demonstrative Pronoun – hic, haec, hoc(this, these)
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Nom. hic hi haec hae hoc haec
Acc. hunc hos hanc has hoc haec
Gen. huius horum huius harum huius horum
Dat. huic his huic his huic his
Abl. hoc his hac his hoc his

Let’s look at some examples,

hic equus – This horse

illorum viros – of those men

in hoc templo stamus – we are standing in this temple

Exercise 2 – Translating Latin Pronouns and Adjectives

  1. quis stat in hoc templo?
  2. eumne illos magnos equos spectat?
  3. illa poeta est bonus
  4. ad villam festino quod meum puerum in eam habitat

You’ve done it! You have come to the end of this basic tutorial on learning Latin, believe it or not, you can now start to decode texts on your own using the skills and tools you’ve gained. However, this is a huge language, used for well over 2000 years, and there is still a lot of learning to go. Stay tuned for updates and new posts as they come in. Well done!

Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3Lesson 4Lesson 5Answers

Welcome to the Easy Latin course. This short book will take you from zero knowledge in Latin to having a strong foundation in reading, translating, and constructing Latin sentences and text.

Everything you need to get started is right here in this book, there are five lessons to work through, followed by answers for everything at the back. Also included are some absolute essentials that will help you throughout your journey in Latin, as you work through this book, and beyond it! There are references on all declensions, conjugations, pronouns, adverbs and irregular verbs! These you can print out and take with you, use them as flash cards and reference sheets, I still refer to them all the time and they are a great tool to check your work without seeing the answers! Plus there is an extensive vocabulary at the end that you can refer to and build on.

This course is essential for anyone starting out with Latin, it will explain everything you need to get started, with helpful hints along the way, and a few historic notes to add some fun.


R. D. Jones


Latin Vocabulary

Nouns Verbs Adjectives
agricola-ae 1m farmer ambulo 1 walk acutus -ae -um clever, sharp
annus -i 2m year amo 1 I love amplus -a -um large
aurum-i 2 n gold castigo 1 I rebuke barbarus -a -um foreign
deus -i 2 m god do, dare 1 give bonus -a -um good
dominus -i 2 m master, lord esse to be carus -ae -um dear
equus -i 2 m horse festino 1 hurry certus -a -um sure
forum -i 2n forum habeo 2 I have iratus -ae -um angry
luna -ae 1f moon habito 1 inhabit, lives in laetus -ae -um glad
malum -i 2n trouble, evil laudo 1 I praise longus -ae -um long
nauta-ae 1m sailor posse to be able magnus -a -um big
oppidum -i 2n town pugno 1 I fight malus -a -um bad, evil
percunia -ae 1f money specto 1 look at, watch meus -a -um my
poeta -ae 1m poet specto 1 watch, look at multi -ae -a many
puella -ae 1f girl sto, stare 1 stand novus -a -um new
puer -i 2m boy parvus -a -um small
regina -ae 1f queen stultus -ae -um foolish
sapientia, -ae 1f wisdom suus -a -um his, her, its, their
seruus -i 2m slave tuus -a -um your
templum 2n temple Adverbs
villa -ae 1f country house cito quickly
vir, viri 2m man, husband male badly
minime not at all
saepe often
sero late
ubi when? Where?
ad (+acc) to, towards
apud (+acc) near, at the house of
in (+acc) into
per (+acc) through, by means of
propter (+acc) on account of
(word)-ne question mark
cur? why
quando? when?
ubi? When? Where?
et and
non not
quod because
quoque also
sed but

About Robert Jones

Robert Jones is a student of history, classics and languages and has been studying his whole life! Along with that he has a degree in earth sciences and shares his life with his beautiful fiance, step-daughter, the tiny minature pinscher Chico and the not as tiny english staffy Bear.

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