Easy Latin – Lesson 5: Personal Pronouns
Learning Latin’s personal pronouns is the final step in gaining a great foot hold on the Latin language. After this lesson you will be able to enter the world of Latin translation and really begin the amazing experience of reading an ancient language.
Pronouns take the place of a noun, so “he” instead of John, “she” instead of the girl. Latin pronouns have gender, so sometimes it is best to translate a pronoun as “it” to make better sense in English.
Below is a partial selection of the 3rd person pronoun.
|3rd person, sing., nom.||Is||He||Ea||She|
|3rd person, sing., acc.||Eum||Him||Eam||Her|
|3rd person, pl., nom.||Ei||They||Eae||They|
|3rd person, pl., acc.||Eos||Them||Eas||Them|
Here are some examples,
eam amo – I love her
is laudat – he praises
eos spectas – you are watching them
The determinative pronoun can refer to someone or something that has already been spoken about. It can act as an adjective, meaning this or that person. For example,
is puer amat eam – that boy loves her
When you are translating, it is not always obvious how the pronoun is being used, so you have to find the context and decide what you believe is the best option.
This is simply a pronoun that asks a question such as, who? or, whom? The singular form is both masculine and feminine. If the pronoun is referring to something that isn’t human, it can be translated as, what, or, which.
|Masc. & Fem.||Masc.||Fem.|
Here are some examples,
quis stat? – Who is standing?
quas laudant? – Whom do they praise?
quae pugnant? – Who are fighting?
Exercise 1 – Translating Latin Pronouns
- quis habet percuniam?
- is vir habet percuniam
- non habeo percuniam quod tuum puerum dat eam suo domino
- quas equum est?
- regina equam servo dat
- cur equam servo dat?
- equam servo dat propter eum laudat ea
Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives
Demonstrative pronouns refer to something literally or figuratively. We are looking at the words, this, these, that, and, those. They can act as either pronouns standing in for a noun, or as an adjective, describing a noun. Lets look at some examples,
This dog is barking loudly. – this acts as an adjective, describing the dog.
I am thinking of this… – this acts as a pronoun.
|Demonstrative Pronoun – ille, illa, illud (that, those)|
|Demonstrative Pronoun – hic, haec, hoc(this, these)|
Let’s look at some examples,
hic equus – This horse
illorum viros – of those men
in hoc templo stamus – we are standing in this temple
Exercise 2 – Translating Latin Pronouns and Adjectives
- quis stat in hoc templo?
- eumne illos magnos equos spectat?
- illa poeta est bonus
- ad villam festino quod meum puerum in eam habitat
You’ve done it! You have come to the end of this basic tutorial on learning Latin, believe it or not, you can now start to decode texts on your own using the skills and tools you’ve gained. However, this is a huge language, used for well over 2000 years, and there is still a lot of learning to go. Stay tuned for updates and new posts as they come in. Well done!
Everything you need to get started is right here in this book, there are five lessons to work through, followed by answers for everything at the back. Also included are some absolute essentials that will help you throughout your journey in Latin, as you work through this book, and beyond it! There are references on all declensions, conjugations, pronouns, adverbs and irregular verbs! These you can print out and take with you, use them as flash cards and reference sheets, I still refer to them all the time and they are a great tool to check your work without seeing the answers! Plus there is an extensive vocabulary at the end that you can refer to and build on.
This course is essential for anyone starting out with Latin, it will explain everything you need to get started, with helpful hints along the way, and a few historic notes to add some fun.
R. D. Jones
|agricola-ae||1m||farmer||ambulo||1||walk||acutus -ae -um||clever, sharp|
|annus -i||2m||year||amo||1||I love||amplus -a -um||large|
|aurum-i||2 n||gold||castigo||1||I rebuke||barbarus -a -um||foreign|
|deus -i||2 m||god||do, dare||1||give||bonus -a -um||good|
|dominus -i||2 m||master, lord||esse||to be||carus -ae -um||dear|
|equus -i||2 m||horse||festino||1||hurry||certus -a -um||sure|
|forum -i||2n||forum||habeo||2||I have||iratus -ae -um||angry|
|luna -ae||1f||moon||habito||1||inhabit, lives in||laetus -ae -um||glad|
|malum -i||2n||trouble, evil||laudo||1||I praise||longus -ae -um||long|
|nauta-ae||1m||sailor||posse||to be able||magnus -a -um||big|
|oppidum -i||2n||town||pugno||1||I fight||malus -a -um||bad, evil|
|percunia -ae||1f||money||specto||1||look at, watch||meus -a -um||my|
|poeta -ae||1m||poet||specto||1||watch, look at||multi -ae -a||many|
|puella -ae||1f||girl||sto, stare||1||stand||novus -a -um||new|
|puer -i||2m||boy||parvus -a -um||small|
|regina -ae||1f||queen||stultus -ae -um||foolish|
|sapientia, -ae||1f||wisdom||suus -a -um||his, her, its, their|
|seruus -i||2m||slave||tuus -a -um||your|
|villa -ae||1f||country house||cito||quickly|
|vir, viri||2m||man, husband||male||badly|
|minime||not at all|
|ad (+acc)||to, towards|
|apud (+acc)||near, at the house of|
|per (+acc)||through, by means of|
|propter (+acc)||on account of|