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Easy Latin – Lesson 4: Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, and Interrogatives

Easy Latin – Lesson 4: Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions, and Interrogatives

On our fourth instalment of Easy Latin, we are raising the stakes and looking and more complex sentence structures. This is an easy to follow lesson that will have you decoding texts in no time!

Adjectives

Adjectives are words that add description and meaning to nouns and pronouns. They must agree in gender, number and case. This is why you see in the vocabulary that an adjective is given three forms, one for each gender. For example,

puer bonus – the good boy (both words are masculine, singular, nominative)

puella bona – the good girl

equus est magnus – the horse is big

templum est malum – the temple is evil

Here are some adjectives for you to learn.

Adjectives
bonus -a -um good
malus -a -um bad, evil
magnus -a -um big
novus -a -um new
parvus -a -um small
meus -a -um my
tuus -a -um your
suus -a -um his, her, its, their
amplus -a -um large
barbarus -a -um foreign
certus -a -um sure
multi -ae -a many
acutus -ae -um clever, sharp
carus -ae -um dear
iratus -ae -um angry
stultus -ae -um foolish
longus -ae -um long
laetus -ae -um glad

Masculine First Declension Nouns

Remember when we said that there were masculine nouns in the first declension and we’d come back to them? Well here we are. Now the first declension is predominantly occupied by feminine nouns who’s adjectives will qualify by being in the feminine gender. However, some of the first declensions nouns are masculine in nature so the adjective must take the masculine form to qualify.

We will only look at three of these nouns for now,

agricola 1m farmer

nauta 1m sailor

poeta 1m poet

 

Let’s see how they work with adjectives,

poeta est magnus – The poet is big

agricolae parvi – Small farmers

sum nauta malus – I am an evil sailor

Exercise 1 – Translating Latin

Translate the following sentences and be careful to match the adjective to the correct noun.

  1. equus magnus amat dominum
  2. non habeo equum bonum
  3. regina est bona quod dat aurum parvae puellae
  4. meus novus dominus est bonus et magnus
  5. tuus equus est parvus et malus sed meus equus est magnus et bonus

Exercise 2 – Translating English to Latin

For this exercise, translate the English sentences to Latin. Remember to have the adjectives agree with their nouns and try and structure your sentences so that verbs drift to the end.

  1. I have a big horse.
  2. Your girls give gold to the master.
  3. The new year is good.
  4. We praise the gold you are giving to the new queens.
  5. The sailors are good because they praise your horses.

Adverbs

Adverbs are words that add description and meaning to verbs. They are indeclinable and therefore in Latin they never change form! (Lucky for all of us!) Here are some adverbs to learn,

Adverbs
minime not at all
ubi when? Where?
cito quickly
sero late
saepe often
male badly

Exercise 3 – Translating Latin Adverbs

  1. dominus dat cito aurum reginae
  2. equus magnus est saepe malum
  3. nautae mali reginum saepe castigant

Prepositions

Placed in front of nouns, pronouns or adjectives, they indicate the relationship between one word and another. For example,

The soldiers marched into the city.

I am standing on the roof.

The birds swoop down from the sky.

Prepositions are always followed by nouns in the accusative or ablative case. Here are some prepositions to learn,

Prepositions
ad (+acc) to, towards
apud (+acc) near, at the house of
in (+acc) into
per (+acc) through, by means of
propter (+acc) on account of

Exercise 4 – Translating Latin Prepositions

  1. dominus apud templum est
  2. pugno propter malos pueros
  3. in villam ambulo
  4. Nautae ad villam ambulant
  5. vir apud forum stat

Interrogatives and Questions

Questions can be initiated in Latin by two ways, by an interrogative word like, why?, or who?, or by attaching -ne to the first word of the sentence. -ne is best understood as a kind of question marker. Let’s look at some examples,

cur puer cavet? – Why is the boy wary?

habesne aurum? – Do you have gold?

aurumne habes? – Do you have gold?

quis aurum habet?  – Who has the gold?

There are many ways to ask questions, but for now we will keep it simple by looking at these four,

Questions
cur? why
quando? when?
ubi? When? Where?
(word)-ne question mark

Exercise 5 – Translating Latin Questions

  1. cur stas apud forum?
  2. ubi est magnam villam?
  3. quis apud forum stat?
  4. quis stat in villam?
  5. equumne domino das?

Great work so far! Now try the exercises below which will tie everything we’ve learn so far together!

Exercise 6 – Translating Complex Latin

  1. equus apud villam stat et parvus est
  2. cur equus parvus est?
  3. parva puella lunam spectat quod magnam est
  4. nautae et agricoli et pueri possent pugnare magnum dominum
  5. dominus parvum seruum castigat quod non laudat puerum
  6. servi stant apud magnum templum propter amant deos

Congratulations on coming this far! If you’ve enjoyed what you’ve seen so far, keep going! You can go to  Lesson 5 where we will explore Latin’s personal pronouns. You can also skip ahead to check your Answers. Keep practising and you’ll be reading Latin in no time. Hit the links below to find each lesson.

Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3Lesson 4Lesson 5Answers



Welcome to the Easy Latin course. This short book will take you from zero knowledge in Latin to having a strong foundation in reading, translating, and constructing Latin sentences and text.

Everything you need to get started is right here in this book, there are five lessons to work through, followed by answers for everything at the back. Also included are some absolute essentials that will help you throughout your journey in Latin, as you work through this book, and beyond it! There are references on all declensions, conjugations, pronouns, adverbs and irregular verbs! These you can print out and take with you, use them as flash cards and reference sheets, I still refer to them all the time and they are a great tool to check your work without seeing the answers! Plus there is an extensive vocabulary at the end that you can refer to and build on.

This course is essential for anyone starting out with Latin, it will explain everything you need to get started, with helpful hints along the way, and a few historic notes to add some fun.

Enjoy!

R. D. Jones

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01K7DHJHG

Latin Vocabulary

Nouns Verbs Adjectives
agricola-ae 1m farmer ambulo 1 walk acutus -ae -um clever, sharp
annus -i 2m year amo 1 I love amplus -a -um large
aurum-i 2 n gold castigo 1 I rebuke barbarus -a -um foreign
deus -i 2 m god do, dare 1 give bonus -a -um good
dominus -i 2 m master, lord esse to be carus -ae -um dear
equus -i 2 m horse habeo 2 I have certus -a -um sure
forum -i 2n forum laudo 1 I praise iratus -ae -um angry
luna -ae 1f moon posse to be able laetus -ae -um glad
malum -i 2n trouble, evil pugno 1 I fight longus -ae -um long
nauta-ae 1m sailor specto 1 look at, watch magnus -a -um big
puella -ae 1f girl sto, stare 1 stand malus -a -um bad, evil
puer -i 2m boy meus -a -um my
regina -ae 1f queen multi -ae -a many
sapientia, -ae 1f wisdom novus -a -um new
seruus -i 2m slave parvus -a -um small
templum 2n temple stultus -ae -um foolish
villa -ae 1f country house suus -a -um his, her, its, their
vir, viri 2m man, husband tuus -a -um your
Adverbs
cito quickly
male badly
minime not at all
saepe often
sero late
ubi when? Where?
Prepositions
ad (+acc) to, towards
apud (+acc) near, at the house of
in (+acc) into
per (+acc) through, by means of
propter (+acc) on account of
Questions
(word)-ne question mark
cur? why
quando? when?
ubi? When? Where?
Other
et and
non not
quod because
quoque also
sed but

About Robert Jones

Robert Jones is a student of history, classics and languages and has been studying his whole life! Along with that he has a degree in earth sciences and shares his life with his beautiful fiance, step-daughter, the tiny minature pinscher Chico and the not as tiny english staffy Bear.

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